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Dokument Nr.200300256 (klicken Sie bitte auf die Dokumentnummer um dieses Dokument anzuzeigen)
TitelRenewable resources and enzymatic processes to create functional polymers: Adapting materials and reactions from food processing
AbstractWe are exploiting materials and concepts from food science to create functionalized, environmentally friendly derivatives of the biopolymer chitosan, a byproduct of seafood processing. Functional groups are grafted onto chitosan using tyrosinase, the enzyme responsible for food browning. The functionalizing groups studied include low-molecular-weight phenols derived from natural sources and high-molecular-weight proteins. The approach of using low-molecular-weight phenols to functionalize chitosan is illustrated with arbutin, a natural phenol found in pears. Results demonstrate that tyrosinase initiates reactions that lead to the conversion of arbutin-chitosan solutions into gels. These gels can be rapidly broken by treatment with the chitosan-hydrolyzing enzyme chitosanase, demonstrating that the chitosan derivatives remain biodegradable. We briefly review other studies in which low-molecular-weight natural phenols are enzymatically grafted onto chitosan to confer functional properties. The creation of co-polymers is illustrated by results in which tyrosinase is used to couple gelatin onto chitosan. Gelatin is a proteinaceous byproduct of meat production. The tyrosinase-generated gelatin-chitosan conjugates have been observed to offer interesting rheological and thermal properties. These results demonstrate the potential for using renewable resources and enzymatic processing to create environmentally friendly polymers with useful functional properties. (orig.)
Control terms engl.BIODEGRADATION; BIOPOLYMERS; BIOSYNTHESIS; CHITOSAN; DAMPING; ENZYMES; GELATIN; FOOD INDUSTRY; MONOMERS; VEGETABLE MATERIALS; PHENOLS; PROTEINS; STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR; ANIMAL MATERIALS; ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Control terms germanBIOLOGISCHER ABBAU; BIOPOLYMERE; BIOSYNTHESE; CHITOSAN; DAEMPFUNG; FERMENTE; GELATINE; LEBENSMITTELINDUSTRIE; MONOMERE; PFLANZLICHE STOFFE; PHENOLE; PROTEINE; SPANNUNGS-DEHNUNGS-VERHALTEN; TIERISCHE STOFFE; UMWELTSCHUTZ